StarkWare Unveils New ‘Stwo’ Cryptographic Prover That’s ‘Blazingly Fast

March 2, 2024 | by


StarkWare, the developer firm behind layer-2 network Starknet, has announced the development of a new cryptographic prover known as Stwo. This upgraded prover is expected to result in faster and cheaper transactions, as it will lower processing costs and fees for users while speeding up transaction times. The news follows last week’s announcement of Circle STARKS, a new type of cryptographic proof aimed at enhancing transaction efficiency for zero-knowledge rollups. Circle STARKS will be implemented in the Stwo prover, further boosting the performance of Ethereum.

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Table of Contents

Overview of StarkWare’s new cryptographic prover

Introduction to Stwo

Stwo is the latest cryptographic prover developed by StarkWare, the developer firm behind the layer-2 network Starknet. It is designed to improve the efficiency and speed of transaction processing in layer-2 networks, ultimately leading to lower costs and fees for users.

Explanation of a cryptographic prover

A cryptographic prover is a crucial component in layer-2 networks. It generates proofs that are then posted to the base layer blockchain, ensuring the security and integrity of transactions. The efficiency and speed of the prover directly impact the overall performance of the network.

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Importance of a prover in layer-2 networks

Layer-2 networks, like Starknet, are built on top of existing blockchains, such as Ethereum. They aim to address scalability issues and improve transaction processing capabilities. A prover plays a vital role in these networks by enabling off-chain processing and reducing the load on the underlying blockchain.

Purpose of Stwo in StarkWare’s ecosystem

Stwo is designed to enhance the performance of layer-2 networks by providing a faster and more efficient cryptographic prover. By reducing transaction processing times and costs, Stwo aims to make decentralized applications (dApps) more accessible and user-friendly.

Key features of the Stwo prover

Stwo boasts several key features that make it stand out in the field of cryptographic provers. These include its blazingly fast processing capabilities, improved scalability, and lower costs. Furthermore, Stwo is an open-source solution, allowing anyone to examine its codebase and contribute to its development.

Benefits of the upgraded prover

Faster transaction processing

One of the primary benefits of the Stwo prover is its blazingly fast transaction processing speed. By optimizing the underlying algorithms and leveraging advanced cryptographic techniques, Stwo significantly reduces the time required to generate proofs. This results in near-instantaneous transaction confirmation and a seamless user experience.

Lower transaction costs

Stwo’s improved efficiency directly translates to lower transaction costs. By reducing the computational resources required for generating proofs, Stwo minimizes the fees associated with transaction processing. This makes it more cost-effective for users to interact with decentralized applications and conduct transactions on layer-2 networks.

Reduced fees for users

With lower transaction costs, users can enjoy reduced fees when using dApps built on Starknet or other layer-2 networks that integrate Stwo. This incentivizes greater adoption of decentralized applications by making them more affordable and economically viable for a wider user base.


Improved scalability

Scalability is a critical challenge for blockchain networks, and layer-2 solutions aim to address this issue. With its enhanced transaction processing capabilities, Stwo contributes to improved scalability by offloading a significant portion of transaction verification and validation to the layer-2 network. This allows for the processing of a higher volume of transactions without negatively impacting the underlying blockchain.

Stwo’s impact on transaction costs and fees

Explanation of transaction costs

Transaction costs in blockchain networks typically include fees associated with network usage, such as gas fees in Ethereum. These fees cover the computational resources required to process and validate transactions on the blockchain.

How Stwo lowers transaction costs

Stwo lowers transaction costs by optimizing the proof generation process. By utilizing advanced cryptographic techniques, Stwo reduces the computational resources required for generating proofs, resulting in lower fees for users. This makes it more affordable to interact with decentralized applications running on layer-2 networks.

Impact on user fees

The reduced transaction costs provided by Stwo have a direct impact on user fees. Users can enjoy lower fees when conducting transactions on layer-2 networks integrated with Stwo. This creates a more user-friendly environment and encourages greater participation in decentralized finance (DeFi) and other blockchain-based applications.

Comparison to other cryptographic provers

Stwo’s innovative approach to transaction processing and fee reduction sets it apart from other cryptographic provers in the market. Its blazingly fast performance and focus on cost efficiency make it an attractive choice for developers and users seeking optimal transaction experiences.

Stwo’s impact on transaction speed

Explanation of transaction speed

Transaction speed refers to the time it takes for a transaction to be processed and confirmed on the blockchain. Faster transaction speed improves the user experience and enables near-instantaneous transactions.

How Stwo improves transaction speed

Stwo significantly improves transaction speed through its efficient proof generation process. By streamlining the underlying algorithms and leveraging advanced cryptographic techniques, Stwo minimizes the processing time required to generate proofs. This allows for faster transaction confirmation and a more seamless user experience.

Real-world examples and performance metrics

Real-world examples and performance metrics showcasing Stwo’s improved transaction speed are yet to be released. However, StarkWare’s track record and expertise in layer-2 network development inspire confidence in the effectiveness of Stwo in enhancing transaction speed.

Comparison to other cryptographic provers

Stwo’s focus on blazingly fast transaction processing sets it apart from other cryptographic provers in terms of transaction speed. Its optimization techniques and innovative approach position it as a leading solution for improving transaction performance in layer-2 networks.

StarkWare’s open-source approach

StarkWare’s previous open-source prover, Stone

Prior to Stwo, StarkWare developed and open-sourced a cryptographic prover called Stone. Stone served as a foundational component for layer-2 networks and contributed to the growth of the decentralized application ecosystem.

Introduction to the Stwo open-source model

StarkWare continues its commitment to openness and transparency with Stwo. The prover’s codebase is open-source, allowing developers and enthusiasts to examine and contribute to its development. This open-source approach fosters collaboration and innovation within the blockchain community.

Accessibility and transparency of the codebase

By making Stwo open-source, StarkWare ensures accessibility and transparency. Developers can freely access and study the codebase, validating its security and performance. This fosters trust and promotes the widespread adoption of Stwo in various layer-2 network implementations.

Transition from Stone to Stwo for Starknet appchains

Explanation of Starknet appchains

Starknet appchains are individual instances of the Starknet protocol that enable the deployment of decentralized applications. These appchains leverage the underlying Starknet infrastructure to offer scalable and secure environments for dApps.

Integration process for transitioning to Stwo

The transition from Stone to Stwo for Starknet appchains involves integrating the new cryptographic prover into the existing infrastructure. StarkWare provides documentation and support for appchain developers to migrate their applications to Stwo seamlessly. The transition process ensures backward compatibility and ensures a smooth experience for end users.

Benefits for appchains using Stwo

Appchains that transition to Stwo can reap several benefits, including faster transaction processing, lower costs, and improved scalability. These benefits enhance the overall performance and user experience of decentralized applications, making them more competitive in the blockchain ecosystem.

Timeline for implementation

The timeline for appchains to transition from Stone to Stwo will depend on individual development schedules and priorities. StarkWare aims to provide comprehensive documentation and support to facilitate a smooth transition process. Appchain developers are encouraged to follow StarkWare’s updates and announcements for guidance on the implementation timeline.

Integration of Circle STARKS in Stwo

Introduction to Circle STARKS

Circle STARKS is a new type of cryptographic proof developed by StarkWare and Polygon. It aims to enhance transaction efficiency and scalability in layer-2 networks by enabling faster and cheaper transactions through zero-knowledge rollups.

Explanation of their role in Stwo

Circle STARKS play a pivotal role in Stwo by providing an additional layer of optimization and efficiency. By integrating Circle STARKS, Stwo can further enhance the generation of proofs and improve overall transaction speed and cost-effectiveness.

Benefits of combining Circle STARKS with Stwo

Combining Circle STARKS with Stwo brings synergistic benefits to transaction efficiency and scalability. The integration allows for faster and cheaper transactions, making decentralized applications more accessible and user-friendly. Additionally, it enhances the overall performance and competitiveness of layer-2 networks in the broader cryptocurrency ecosystem.

Impact on Ethereum and transaction efficiency

The integration of Circle STARKS in Stwo has a positive impact on the Ethereum network. By significantly improving transaction efficiency and reducing costs, Stwo with Circle STARKS contributes to the broader goal of making Ethereum a more efficient and scalable blockchain platform.

Opinions from StarkWare team members

Statements from Eli Ben-Sasson, Co-founder and President of StarkWare

Eli Ben-Sasson, Co-founder and President of StarkWare, expressed enthusiasm for the development of Stwo. He emphasized the importance of efficient and cost-effective transaction processing in layer-2 networks, and how Stwo addresses these challenges effectively.

Quotes from Oren Katz, COO of StarkWare

Oren Katz, COO of StarkWare, highlighted the significance of Circle STARKS in the Stwo ecosystem. He emphasized the potential of this integration to supercharge Ethereum and create a more efficient transaction environment for users.

Insights from other key team members

Other key team members from StarkWare may have provided additional insights and perspectives on Stwo. While specific statements are not available in the provided content, it is evident that the StarkWare team is highly motivated and confident in Stwo’s capabilities.

Background on StarkWare and Polygon collaboration

StarkWare and Polygon have collaborated on numerous projects aimed at enhancing the scalability and efficiency of blockchain networks. The partnership leverages the expertise and resources of both companies to develop innovative solutions, such as Circle STARKS.

Conclusion and future prospects

Summary of Stwo’s impact and benefits

Stwo, the new cryptographic prover unveiled by StarkWare, promises blazingly fast transaction processing, lower costs, and improved scalability for layer-2 networks. Its integration with Circle STARKS further enhances its efficiency and performance, ultimately benefiting users and decentralized application developers.

Expectations for future developments

With the release of Stwo, the future looks promising for StarkWare and the broader blockchain ecosystem. It is expected that Stwo will continue to evolve and offer even greater efficiency and scalability in the coming years. Additionally, StarkWare’s commitment to open-source development ensures continuous innovation and collaboration among developers.

Potential applications and use cases

Stwo’s improved transaction processing speed, lower costs, and enhanced scalability unlock numerous possibilities for decentralized applications. These applications span various sectors, including decentralized finance, gaming, supply chain management, and more.

Implications for the broader crypto ecosystem

The introduction of Stwo and its integration with Circle STARKS has significant implications for the broader crypto ecosystem. It contributes to addressing scalability issues, reducing transaction costs, and improving user experiences, ultimately driving wider adoption of blockchain technology.

In conclusion, StarkWare’s Stwo represents a significant advancement in the field of cryptographic provers. Its blazingly fast transaction processing, lower costs, and improved scalability pave the way for a more accessible and user-friendly decentralized application ecosystem. With the integration of Circle STARKS and StarkWare’s commitment to openness, Stwo holds great promise for the future of layer-2 networks and the broader cryptocurrency ecosystem.

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